microbiology mcqs with answers

Microbiology MCQs with Answers Online

Join Pak Army as GDMO or Medical Specialist through Short Service Commission or Short Service regular Commission by learning Microbiology MCQs which are part of the initial tests of Pakistan Army, Pakistan Navy and PAF Medical branch tests. See Microbiology MCQs in the following parts.

Microbiology MCQs Past Experiences (Part-1)

The study of microorganisms in their natural environment is known as _______. (Environmental Microbiology)

Microorganisms that can live and grow in extreme environments are called _______________. (Extremophiles)

The process by which plants use sunlight to convert carbon dioxide and water into glucose and oxygen is called _______________. (Photosynthesis)

The conversion of atmospheric nitrogen into a usable form by certain bacteria is called _______________. (Nitrogen bond)

The term _______________ refers to microorganisms that need oxygen to grow.(Aerobes)

_______________ is the process by which microorganisms break down organic matter into simpler compounds. (Decomposition)

Microorganisms that can survive in the absence of oxygen are called _______________. (Anaerobes)

The process of using microorganisms to break down or remove pollutants from the environment is called _______________. (Bioremediation)

The study of how microorganisms interact with each other and with the environment is known as _______________. (Microbial Ecology)

Microorganisms that require a high salt content to grow are called _______________. (Halophiles)

The process by which microorganisms transform organic matter into methane gas in the absence of oxygen is called _______________. (Anaerobic digestion)

Microorganisms capable of producing their own food from inorganic sources are called _______________. (Autotrophs)

The accumulation of harmful substances in the tissues of organisms as they move up the food chain is called _______________. (Biomagnification)

The use of microorganisms to reduce the concentration of pollutants in wastewater is called _______________. (Bioremediation)

The study of viruses and their interactions with the environment is known as _______________. (Virus Ecology)

A parasitic relationship in which one organism benefits at the expense of the host is called _______________. (Parasitism)

Microbiology MCQs Past Experiences (Part-2)

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The study of parasites and their interactions with hosts is known as _______________. (Parasitology)

Parasites that live inside the host and the body are called _______________ parasites. (Endoparasites)

The transmission of parasites from one host to another through an intermediate organism is called _______________. (Indirect transmission)

_______________ is the transmission of infection from mother to offspring during pregnancy or childbirth. (Vertical transmission)

The _______________ stage and life cycle stage of a parasite is the stage present in the definitive host. (Full)

Parasites that live outside of their host and body are called _______________ parasites. (Ectoparasites)

The _______________ stage and life cycle of a parasite is the stage that occurs outside the host. (Free life)

The use of drugs to treat parasitic infections is called _______________.(Antiparasitic treatment)

Parasitic worms are also known as _______________. (Helminths)

The ability of a parasite to cause disease is called _______________.(Pathogenicity)

_______________ is an organism that has a parasite but does not suffer an infection. (reservoir host)

_______________ is an organism on or in which a parasite lives and from which it receives food. (Host)

The _______________ stage of a parasite’s life cycle is the stage that occurs in the intermediate host. (Larva)

_______________ is the process by which parasites evade or suppress the host and the immune system. (Immune Evasion)

Bacteriology is a branch of microbiology that focuses on the study of _______________. (Bacteria)

Bacteria are classified by different shapes, including cocci (spherical), bacilli (rod-shaped), and _______________ (spiral).  (Respirator)

Bacterial cells lack _______________, which is a membrane-bound organelle found in eukaryotic cells. (Nucleus)

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Medical Microbiology MCQs with Answers

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Microbiology MCQs Past Experiences (Part-3)

Bacteria reproduce by _______________, in which one cell divides into two identical daughter cells. (Binary fission)

The outer layer of some bacteria, made up of complex carbohydrates called _______________, provides protection and helps the bacteria adhere to surfaces. (capsule)

_______________ staining is usually used to distinguish between gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. (Gram)

Bacteria that need oxygen to grow are called _______________. (Obligate aerobes)

Bacteria that can grow with or without oxygen are known as _______________. (Facultative anaerobes)

Bacteria that can survive extreme environmental conditions, such as high temperatures or high salt concentrations, are called _______________. (Extremophiles)

Bacteria _______________ are hair-like structures that help attach to surfaces and facilitate the transfer of genetic material between cells. (Pili)

Bacterial _______________ are small circular pieces of DNA that can be passed between bacteria and often contain genes for antibiotic resistance.(Plasmids)

Bacteria obtain energy through various metabolic processes, including _______________, in which organic compounds act as electron donors and acceptors. (Fermentation)

_______________ is the process by which bacteria take DNA from their environment and incorporate it into their genome. (Transformation)

Bacteria _______________ are enzymes that can cut DNA in specific sequences, facilitating genetic engineering and research. (Restriction enzymes)

Bacteria _______________ are motile structures that allow bacteria to move toward or away from certain stimuli. (Flagella)

Mycology is the branch of microbiology that focuses on the study of _______________. (Fungi)

Fungi are eukaryotic organisms that have _______________ in their cell walls. (Chitin)

Fungi can reproduce by forming _______________, which are microscopic structures that contain spores. (Fruit organs).

_______________ is the vegetative body of a fungus, which consists of thread-like structures called hyphae. (Mycelium)

Microbiology MCQs Past Experiences (Part-4)

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Fungal infections in humans are called _______________. (Mycoses)

Fungi obtain nutrients through _______________, break down organic matter from the outside, and then absorb the nutrients. (Extracellular digestion)

_______________ are fungi that obtain nutrients from dead organic matter and play an important role in decomposition. (Saprophytes)

Fungi that are associated with plant roots are called _______________. (Mycorrhizal fungi)

Fungi that obtain nutrients from living organisms and often cause damage are called _______________. (Parasitic fungi)

_______________ is the reproductive structure of a fungus that produces and releases spores. (Fruiting body)

Fungal spores are usually attached to _______________, allowing the fungus to spread and colonize new areas. (Reproduction)

_______________ are fungal diseases that affect the superficial layers of the skin, hair or nails. (Dermatophytoses)

The process of _______________ involves the fusion of two compatible fungal hyphae into a new individual. (Plasmogamy)

Fungi can be classified into different groups based on their _______________ such as Ascomycetes and Basidiomycetes. (Taxonomy)

Fungi play an important role in various ecosystems, including _______________ by breaking down complex organic compounds into simpler forms. (Degradation)

Sterilization is the process of removing all _______________ from a particular object, medium or environment. (Microorganisms)

_______________ is a sterilization technique that uses pressurized steam to kill microorganisms. (Autoclave)

The most commonly used combination of temperature and pressure in an autoclave is _______________ 121 degrees Celsius. (15 psi (pounds per square inch))

_______________ is a sterilization method that uses dry heat to kill microorganisms. (Dry sterilization)

The temperature and duration required for dry sterilization is usually _______________ 160 degrees Celsius. (2 hours)

_______________ is a sterilization technique that uses chemicals to kill or inactivate microorganisms. (Chemical sterilization)

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Introduction to Microbiology MCQs Questions Online Free

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Microbiology MCQs Past Experiences (Part-5)

One of the most commonly used chemical sterilization is _______________, which is effective against many microorganisms. (Glutaraldehyde)

_______________ is a sterilization method that uses high-energy radiation to kill microorganisms. (Radiation sterilization)

_______________ is a type of radiation sterilization that uses gamma rays from a radioactive source. (Gamma radiation)

_______________ is a type of radiation sterilization that uses an electron beam of high-energy electrons. (Electron beam sterilization)

_______________ is a sterilization technique that uses filtration to remove microorganisms from liquids or gases. (Membrane filtration)

_______________ is a sterilization method that uses ethyl oxide gas to kill microorganisms. (Gas sterilization)

_______________ is a sterilization technique that uses high pressure to sterilize a liquid medium. (High Pressure Sterilization)

_______________ is a sterilization method that involves the use of filtration and heat to sterilize heat-sensitive liquids. (Membrane filtration with heat)

_______________ is a sterilization technique that uses ultraviolet (UV) radiation to kill or inactivate microorganisms. (UV sterilization)

Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a method used in diagnostic microbiology to amplify _______________ sequences for detection and identification of microorganisms. (DNA)

_______________ is a diagnostic technique that uses DNA sequencing to identify microorganisms based on their genetic information. (Next Generation Sequencing)

_______________ is a method used in diagnostic microbiology to identify microorganisms based on their protein profiles. (Matrix-assisted laser absorption/ionization-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS))

_______________ is a diagnostic method that uses specific antibodies to detect and identify microorganisms or their products. (Immunoassays)

_______________ is a method used in diagnostic microbiology to visualize microorganisms using fluorescently labeled antibodies. ( Immunofluorescence)

_______________ is a diagnostic method that involves culturing microorganisms in the presence of certain antibiotics to determine their sensitivity. (Antimicrobial susceptibility test)

The _______________ test is a rapid diagnostic method used to detect antigens or antibodies in patient samples. (Rapid Diagnostic Test)

Microbiology MCQs Past Experiences (Part-6)

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_______________ is a method used in diagnostic microbiology to detect and identify microorganisms based on their nucleic acid sequences. (Nucleic Acid Amplification Tests (NAAT))

_______________ is a diagnostic procedure that involves the direct microscopic examination of patient samples for the presence of microorganisms. (Microscopy)

_______________ is a diagnostic technique that uses selective media and biochemical tests to identify microorganisms based on their metabolic characteristics. (Culture-based detection)

_______________ is a method used in diagnostic microbiology to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility of microorganisms by measuring their growth in the presence of various concentrations of antibiotics. (Dilution methods)

_______________ is a diagnostic method that detects the presence of certain microbial genes or gene products in patient samples. (Nucleic acid hybridization)

_______________ is a method used in diagnostic microbiology to visualize microorganisms in patient samples using an electron beam. (Electron microscope)

_______________ is a diagnostic technique that detects and identifies microorganisms in patient specimens based on their growth characteristics. (count stops)

_______________ is a method used in diagnostic microbiology to identify microorganisms based on their metabolites using gas chromatography or mass spectrometry. (metabolomics).

_______________ is a branch of biology that combines biological science with engineering principles to design and create new biological parts, devices, and systems.  (Synthetic biology)

_______________ is a technique used in biotechnology to cut DNA at specific sequences using restriction enzymes.  (DNA cleavage)

The _______________ is a circular piece of DNA found in bacteria that is commonly used as a vector for cloning and genetic engineering. (Plasmid)

_______________ is a technique used in biotechnology to amplify specific DNA sequences through multiple cycles of DNA replication. (Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR))

_______________ is a process used in biotechnology to introduce foreign DNA into host cells.  (Transformation)

_______________ is a method used in biotechnology to separate DNA fragments based on their size using an electric field.  (Gel electrophoresis)

_______________ is a technique used in biotechnology to determine the sequence of nucleotides in a DNA molecule.  (DNA sequencing)

_______________ is the process of creating genetically identical copies of an organism through asexual reproduction. (Cloning)

_______________ is a technique used in biotechnology to insert genes into the genome of an organism, resulting in the expression of specific traits. (Genetic engineering)

_______________ are genetically modified organisms that contain DNA from different species. (Transgenic organisms)

_______________ is a technique used in biotechnology to identify and analyze DNA sequences of interest by marking them with fluorescent labels. (DNA labeling)

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