anatomy and physiology mcqs

Anatomy and Physiology MCQs with Answers

If you want to join Pak Army, Pak Navy, or Pakistan Air Force in medical field as a commissioned officer like Captain or Direct Major then you can join Pak Army as a GDMO, Medical Specialist, Dental Surgeon or Medical Officers through Permanent Commission of Pak Army or Short Services Regular Commission. Following Anatomy and Physiology related questions are very helpful for the initial tests of LCC, GDMOs and other medical branches of Forces.

Q. _______________ is the period of ventricular contraction during the cardiac cycle.  (Systole)

Q. _______________ is the period of ventricular relaxation during the cardiac cycle.
(Diastole)

Q. The _______________ is responsible for initiating the electrical impulses that regulate the cardiac cycle.
(Sinoatrial (SA) node)

Q. _______________ is an atrial contraction that occurs during the cardiac cycle.
(atrial systole)

Q. _______________ is the contraction of the ventricles that occurs during the cardiac cycle.
(Ventricular systole)

Q. _______________ is the relaxation of the atria during the cardiac cycle.
(atrial diastole)

Q. _______________ is the relaxation of the ventricles that occurs during the cardiac cycle. (Ventricular diastole)

Q. _______________ is the time from the closing of the atrioventricular valves to the opening of the semilunar valves. (Isovolumetric contraction phase)

Q. _______________ is the time between the closing of the semilunar valves and the opening of the atrioventricular valves.
(Isovolumetric relaxation phase)

Q. _______________ is the volume of blood ejected from the ventricles during each contraction. (Stroke volume)

Q. _______________ is the volume of blood remaining in the ventricles at the end of ventricular diastole. (End-diastolic volume)

Q. _______________ is the volume of blood remaining in the ventricles at the end of ventricular systole. (End-systolic volume)

Q. _______________ is the amount of blood that each ventricle pumps per minute.
(Cardiac output)

Q. _______________ is the difference between end-diastolic volume and end-systolic volume.
(Pulse)

Q. _______________ is the average number of heartbeats per minute.
(Pulse.)

Q. _______________ is the unit of muscle fiber contraction. (Sarcomere)

Q. _______________ is the neurotransmitter responsible for initiating muscle contraction.
(Acetylcholine)

Q. _______________ is a form of energy storage in muscle cells. (
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP))

Q. _______________ is the functional unit of skeletal muscle.
(Motor unit)

Q. _______________ is the process by which a muscle fiber contracts in response to a stimulus.
(Excitation contraction)

Q. _______________ is the process by which muscle fibers relax after contracting. (Relaxation)

Q. _______________ is the ability of a muscle to stretch without injury. (Extensibility)

Q. _______________ is the ability of a muscle to return to its original shape and length after being stretched.
(Elasticity)

Q. _______________ is a type of muscle contraction in which the muscles lengthen creating tension.
(Eccentric contraction)

Q. _______________ is a type of muscle contraction in which the muscle shortens and produces tension.
(Concentric contraction)

Q. _______________ is a type of muscle contraction in which the length of the muscle remains constant and produces tension.
(Isometric contraction)

Q. _______________ is the process by which muscle fibers increase in size in response to repeated stimulation.
(Hypertrophy)

Q. _______________ is the process by which muscle fibers decrease in size and strength due to use or denervation. (Atrophy)

Q. _______________ is an oxygen-binding protein in muscle cells that stores and releases oxygen for muscle contraction.
(Myoglobin)

Q. _______________ is a neurotransmitter receptor on the muscle fiber membrane that binds acetylcholine.
(Nicotine prescription.)_______________ is the functional unit of the kidney responsible for the formation of urine. (Nephron)

Q. _______________ is the process by which metabolic wastes and excess substances are removed from the blood and excreted in the urine.
(Filtration)

Q. _______________ is the network of capillaries in the Bowmand capsule where filtration occurs.
(Glomerulus)

Q. _______________ is the process by which substances are reabsorbed from the filtrate back into the bloodstream.
(Reabsorption)

Anatomy and Physiology MCQs for Nurses

More past papers mcqs of Anatomy and Physiology for AFNS, GDMOs, Medical Officers and medical Specialists of Pak Army, Pak Navy and PAF are given below.

Q. _______________ is the process by which substances are actively excreted from the blood into the filtrate. (Secretion)

Q. _______________ is a hormone produced in the kidneys that stimulates the production of red blood cells in the bone marrow.
(Erythropoietin)

Q. _______________ is a hormone produced by the kidneys that regulates blood pressure by promoting water reabsorption. (Antidiuretic hormone (ADH))

Q. _______________ is a hormone produced by the kidneys that stimulates calcium reabsorption and activates vitamin D.
(Parathyroid hormone (PTH))

Q. _______________ is the process by which the kidneys are kept in balance. of electrolytes such as sodium and potassium in the body. (Electrolyte homeostasis)

Q. _______________ is the process by which the kidneys regulate blood pH through secretion of hydrogen or bicarbonate ions. (Acid-base balance)

Q. _______________ is the term for the formation of concentrated urine in the kidneys.
(Concentration/dilution)

Q. _______________ is the process by which the kidneys regulate blood volume and blood pressure by regulating the excretion of water and sodium.
(Fluid balance)

Q. _______________ is a hormone produced by the kidneys that promotes the release of aldosterone from the adrenal glands by regulating sodium and potassium balance.
(Renin)

Q. _______________ is the part of the nephron responsible for the reabsorption of water and electrolytes under the action of antidiuretic hormone. (Collecting duct)

Q. _______________ represents the formation and excretion of large amounts of dilute urine.
(Diuresis.)

Q. _______________ is the largest organ in the human body. (Skin)

Q. _______________ is the main organ of the respiratory system.
(Lungs)

Q. _______________ is the process by which oxygen is transported from the lungs to the tissues of the body and carbon dioxide is transported from the tissues to the lungs.
(Breath)

Q. _______________ is the main organ of the cardiovascular system.
 (Heart)

Q. _______________ is the process by which blood is pumped from the heart and circulated throughout the body.
(Blood circulation)

Q. _______________ is the main organ of the digestive system. (Stomach)

Q. _______________ is the process by which nutrients are broken down and nutrients are absorbed into the body.
(Digestion)

Q. _______________ is the main organ of the nervous system. (Brain)

Q. _______________ is the process by which the body receives sensory information and sends motor signals to control movement and behavior.
(Coordination of the nervous system)

Q. _______________ is the main organ of the musculoskeletal system.
(Bones)

Q. _______________ is the process by which muscles contract and produce movement.
(Muscle contraction)

Q. _______________ is the main organ of the urinary tract. (Kidneys)

Q. _______________ is the process by which the kidneys filter blood, remove waste products, and maintain fluid and electrolyte balance.
(Excretion)

Q. _______________ is the main organ of the endocrine system. (Pancreas)

Q. _______________ is the process by which hormones are produced and released to regulate various body functions.
(Hormonal regulation.)_______________ is a disease characterized by impaired absorption of nutrients in the digestive tract. (Malabsorption)

Q. _______________ is the most common type of malabsorption characterized by the inability to digest gluten.
(Celiac disease)

Q. _______________ are finger-like protrusions in the small intestine that increase the surface area for nutrient absorption.
(Wild)

Q. _______________ is the enzyme responsible for breaking down lactose into sub-sugars.
(Lactase)

Q. _______________ is a vitamin deficiency usually associated with malabsorption characterized by neurological symptoms. (Vitamin B12 deficiency)

Q. _______________ is a fat-soluble vitamin deficiency often seen in malabsorption that results in poor bone health.
(Vitamin D deficiency)

Q. _______________ is impaired absorption of carbohydrates that causes symptoms such as bloating, gas and diarrhea.
(Carbohydrate malabsorption)

Q. _______________ is a disorder of fat absorption that results in fatty stools and weight loss.
(Malabsorption of fat)

Q. _______________ is a disease characterized by malabsorption of nutrients due to damage to the mucosa of the small intestine.
(Damage to the mucosa of the small intestine)

anatomy mcqs

Human Anatomy and Physiology MCQs with Answer of AFNS

More mcqs are given related to anatomy and physiology for joining Army, Navy and PAF.

Q. _______________ is a condition in which iron absorption is impaired, leading to iron deficiency anemia. (Iron malabsorption)

Q. _______________ is a condition characterized by an inability to absorb certain sugars such as fructose or glucose.
( Sugar malabsorption)

Q. _______________ is an imaging technique commonly used to diagnose malabsorption by imaging the small intestine.
(Imaging of the small intestine)

Q. _______________ is an autoimmune disease that can cause malabsorption due to damage to the intestinal mucosa.
(Crohn’s disease)

Q. _______________ is an invasive procedure used to obtain a tissue sample from the small intestine to diagnose malabsorption. (Small bowel biopsy)

Q. _______________ is a treatment for malabsorption that involves changing your diet to avoid certain triggers.
(Elimination diet.)

Q. The _______________ is the curved portion of the aorta that gives rise to several large arteries that supply the head, neck, and upper extremities. (Aortic arch)

Q. The aortic arch forms the _______________ of the aorta.
(Ascending aorta)

Q. Three large arteries arise from the aortic arch, namely the _______________, _______________ and _______________ arteries.
(Brachiocephalic, left common carotid artery and left subclavian)

Q. The aortic arch is located behind the _______________ and in front of the _______________.
(Chest, trachea)

Q. During embryonic development, the aortic arch forms the aortic sac _______________. (Fourth aortic arch)

Q. The _______________ artery originates from the brachiocephalic trunk and supplies blood to the right side of the head and neck.
(Right carotid artery)

Q. _______________ artery arises from the aortic arch and supplies blood to the left side of the head and neck.
(Left common carotid artery)

Q. _______________ artery arises from the aortic arch and supplies blood to the left upper limb.
(Left subclavian)

Q. The aortic arch gives rise to several branches that supply the head and neck, including the _______________ and _______________ arteries.
(Spine, thyroid gland)

Q. The _______________ artery arises from the aortic arch and supplies blood to the posterior part of the chest wall. (Intercostal posterior)

Q. During development, the aortic arch twists toward the _______________ leaving the left subclavian artery posterior to the left common carotid artery.
(Left)

Q. The _______________ artery arises directly from the aortic arch and supplies blood to the thymus gland, heartbeat and bronchus.
(Bronchial)

Q. _______________ artery rises from the aortic arch and supplies blood to the esophagus. (Esophagus)

Q. _______________ artery arises from the aortic arch and supplies blood to the upper part of the spinal cord.
(Posterior)

Q. The aortic arch gives rise to _______________ arteries that supply blood to the upper limbs.
(Subclavian.)

Q. The _______________ is the primary lymphatic system responsible for the production and maturation of T cells. (Thymus)

Q. _______________ is the process by which immune cells recognize and destroy foreign substances in the body.
(Immune response)

Q. _______________ are proteins produced by immune cells that specifically bind to foreign substances and mark them for destruction. (Antibodies)

Q. _______________ is a type of immune response that occurs after initial exposure to an antigen and involves the production of antibodies.
(Primary immune response)

Q. _______________ is a type of immune response that occurs after subsequent exposure to the same antigen and is faster and more effective than the primary response.
(Secondary immune response)

Q. _______________ is a specific type of white blood cell that engulfs and destroys pathogens through a process called phagocytosis.
(Macrophages)

Q. _______________ are small protein molecules that help coordinate the immune response by signaling between immune cells.
(Cytokines)

Q. _______________ are small molecules produced by infected cells that help nearby cells resist viral infection. (Interferons)

Q. _______________ is the process by which immune cells recognize and destroy cancer cells in the body.
(Immune surveillance)

Q. _______________ is a type of immune response that involves the activation of T cells to directly destroy infected cells.
(cell-mediated immune response)

Q. _______________ is a type of immune response in which B cells produce antibodies to neutralize pathogens.
(Humoral immune response)

Q. _______________ is the process by which immune cells andquot, memoryquot, specific pathogens and induces a rapid and specific response upon repeated exposure.
(Immunological memory)

Q. _______________ are special proteins on the surface of immune cells that recognize and bind to specific antigens. (Antigen receptors)

Q. _______________ is the process by which immune cells differentiate between self and non-self cells to avoid attacking healthy tissues. (Immune tolerance)

Q. _______________ is a type of immune reaction that occurs in response to an exaggerated immune response to harmless substances such as pollen or dust.
(Allergic immune response.)

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